ABSTRACT Both chronic and acute stress can cause long-lasting abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems mediating adaptation. These abnormalities, in turn, are thought to contribute to psychological disturbances such as anxiety, depression, and hostility, and to behaviors such as substance abuse, violent aggression, and criminal acts. This article reviews evidence for neuroendocrine abnormalities in aggression and crime, defines stress as it relates to adaptation and behaviors, discusses stress-induced abnormalities in neuroendocrine systems, and reviews evidence that the Transcendental Meditation (TM)1 program may reduce aggression and crime in part by removing these stress-induced abnormalities.