This chapter discusses the reforms in Brazilian income transfer policies for the unemployed of working age during the last decade. It focuses on Bolsa Família (Family Grant), the popular conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme, and the Brasil Sem Miséria (Brazil Without Misery) plan. The latter was adopted in June 2011, with the aim of ﬁlling the gaps which had been found in Bolsa Família. It also serves to reaﬃrm the commitment of the government under Dilma Rousseﬀ to eradicate extreme poverty in Brazil. As will be shown, the introduction of Bolsa Família was characterized by a large number of administrative reforms to existing schemes, while the Brasil Sem Miséria plan has a stronger focus on the need to link social assistance to public service and employment provision. The chapter starts with a brief discussion of the context of existing social
assistance programmes within which Bolsa Família was created and implemented. It continues with the characteristics of Bolsa Família, and the successes and constraints of this particular social assistance policy. Lastly, Brasil Sem Miséria is introduced.