It is widely recognized that ecosystems provide people with great non-material benefits “through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, recreation and aesthetic experiences” (MA, 2005). These ecological contributions to non-material or ‘extra-material’ benefits, including both experiences and capabilities, reflect people’s interactions with nature and have come to be known amongst ecologists and resource managers as ‘cultural ecosystem services’ (CES) (Chan et al., 2011). These ecosystem services (ES) are some of the most salient and compelling reasons for people to conserve or restore ecosystems (Chan et al., 2012a). Accordingly, the management of CES is an essential consideration for sustainability, both because CES are crucial contributors to human well-being and because they may be key to sustainable human-ecological relationships.