This chapter argues that the two main achievements of indigenous transnationalism in the twentieth century have been the articulation of a coherent and distinctive category of indigenous peoples, the codification and recognition of a charter of rights to which that category of peoples is entitled. Shah observes the 'dark side' that attends these features of indignity, fearing it may provide intellectual cover for Hindu extremism. The case for the last fifty years, indigenous activism likely remain crucial to the unfolding of events, and influence, to some extent, the principles that emerge most readily from the international domain. However, even a full adoption of United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) as domestic law would not relieve all the pressures welling up around indigenous status. Unions and leftism more generally have lost much of their relevance to the indigenous struggle now, but other groups, such as environmentalists, social justice and international solidarity campaigners, and law reform advocates.