Over a decade of war in Afghanistan and Iraq has defined a rapidly evolving set of challenges for military families and their children. It is estimated that about 4 million children and adolescents have had a parent serve in the military since 9/11; many of these have spent much of their childhood with at least one parent leaving and returning in the context of danger. Some children have experienced the hardships of parental injury, illness, and even loss (for review, see Holmes, Rauch, & Cozza, 2013). With an increased risk for combat-related mental health problems such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as well as physical injuries in their families and extended communities, military children and families face unique and often sustained stressors that may influence child well-being over time in ways that are not yet well understood.