Statistics and research have demonstrated significant and persistent patterns of inequality in the labour market experiences of immigrants and those foreign-born in comparison with native-born populations. For example, on average, in OECD countries, immigrants have higher unemployment rates, lower incomes and are over-represented in economic sectors characterised by poorer working conditions in comparison with the native-born population (FRA 2011; OECD 2013). Of course, this disparity occurs for a number of reasons, not only discrimination. Nevertheless, there is now a body of evidence assembled though a range of techniques and from a variety of sources that demonstrates convincingly that unjustifiable discrimination is one factor that blights the working lives and reduces the employment opportunities of immigrants and minorities.