In this chapter, we examine four broad categories of political and civic participation:

• voting; • other forms of conventional political activity, such as contacting a politician,

being a member of/working for a political party, donating money to a political organisation, wearing a political party campaign badge, etc.;

• non-conventional political activity, such as participating in lawful demonstrations and illegal protests, buying/boycotting certain products, signing petitions, etc.;

• civic engagement, such as being involved in a social club, education or teaching group, religious or church organisation, cultural or hobby group, sports or outdoor activity club, environmental or humanitarian organisation, business or professional group, or a trade union.