This chapter examines to articulate foundational principles for the attribution of human rights obligations and the apportioning of responsibility for violations in a plural and diverse duty-bearer setting. Assigning particular obligations to a duty-bearer logically precedes the question as to whether that actor can subsequently be held responsible for a violation or infringement of a human right. That scope is bound to be variable, not only for specific obligations, but arguably also more generally in light of the degree of control or influence exercised. The distributive allocation of human rights obligations among duty-bearers is least developed. Whereas it may be open to challenge, the primary obligation of the domestic State still seems to be the logical point of departure. Other States and non-State actors have complementary obligations. When complementary obligations apply simultaneously, they are called parallel. When obligations are only triggered due to the inability or unwillingness of the primary duty-bearer, they are secondary or subsidiary.