The Southeast Asia region2 consists of 10 countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. These countries are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). In terms of population size and land area, the countries in the region vary considerably. The region is home to 619 million people, of whom about 418 million are of working age (15-64 years old), and has a labor force (the economically active population having and/or looking for a job) of about 290 million. The number of workers in the labor force across countries varies considerably, since labor force participation rates are similar across the countries in the region. Therefore, the number of jobs needed across the countries also varies in line with the size of the labor force. Given their different levels of development, the types of job needed will also vary. Population age structures across countries also show significant variation, with some countries already completing the demographic transition (Singapore and Thailand), while others still have relatively young populations (Lao PDR, Philippines, Cambodia, and Indonesia; see Jones, Chapter 10 in this volume). Their different levels of development are also reflected in key demographic indicators, such as the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), and Age Dependency Ratio (ADR), as shown in Table 13.1. More developed countries have lower TFR, IMR, MMR, and ADR. These variations in population and demographic factors are in large measure reflections of progress in their economies. Singapore, for instance, has achieved the status of a high-income country, and the earnings of the average Singaporean are many multiples of those of the majority of the Southeast Asian population.