The high-speed railway (HSR) is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than conventional railway systems. This chapter first gives a brief review of the development history of existing HSR systems in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Mainland China, and then compares their experiences in terms of networks and operations, passengers and performances, socioeconomic impacts, and station area developments, for the reference of future HSR projects in Asia. It is found that the clear policy objectives, strong governmental commitments, and the financing approaches are key factors for making HSR happen. Finally, this chapter explores issues and future challenges from the viewpoints of practice and research.