In order to offer cleaner, more reliable, and more efficient mass transport services geared to a new era, this chapter focuses on two main types of railway freight transport and logistics: car-based transport and container-based transport, and illustrates a comprehensive picture of railway freight transport and logistics in terms of: (1) basic characteristics of railway freight transport; (2) modern container transport systems (using Japanese railway freight transport as a case model); (3) approaches to analyze container-based intermodal freight transport; and (4) optimal method for yard-based railway freight transport system.