This edited volume brings together researchers from across the world to discuss fieldsites as disparate as The Gambia is from Japan. Yet all chapters in this volume highlight the void that exists between protection that legal documents such as the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol want to afford to refugees and the reality of life for most refugees. The UNHCR remains the main agency charged with determining refugee status and safeguarding refugees from persecution and harm. As such it continues to perform the most difficult of tasks in often very challenging environments, as the preceding chapters attest. The move from refugee camps to urban settings presents new challenges to the UNHCR, host countries and refugees themselves.