This chapter argues that, the violent conflict in Balochistan is unlikely to permanently subside, absent a comprehensive change in the government's approach and policies toward the province. In particular, the militarized Pakistani central state continues to view Balochistan as a source of natural resources, pursuing a largely military solution to lingering socioeconomic and political problems. It also discusses the evolution of demands for regional autonomy for Balochistan. The chapter analyzes the emergence of the most recent wave of insurgency, focusing on the Gwador Port issue and the role of Pakistan's military and also contextualizes the re-emergence of the Baloch conflict by focusing on its regional and global dimensions. Balochistan is ethnically and linguistically Pakistan's most diverse province. The Baloch are the largest ethnic group in the province but do not constitute a majority. The major demand of the Baloch nationalists has always been provincial autonomy and local control over their resources.