ABSTRACT

The advent of democracy in South Africa in April 1994 presented both the country and the institutions created during the colonial and apartheid years with an opportunity for a rebirth and a new beginning. Planning was not only offered a chance to shed its tainted past, but also to redeem itself, by contributing to the healing of the deep spatial, social, and economic wounds it was complicit in inflicting (Mabin & Oranje, 2014; Muller, 1983; Oranje, 2012; Oranje & Berrisford, 2012). Fuelled on by this dual challenge and prospect, a new era of progressive planning was born, with as: (1) its moral guides redress, equity, economic, social and spatial justice, fairness, and sustainability, and (2) its aim, the development of equitable, integrated, vibrant, and sustainable communities (Harrison, Todes, & Watson, 2008; Oranje, 1998).