This chapter maps the contours and main determinants of Uyghur identities. Rising ethnic consciousness among Uyghurs in the post-1978 era is a major subject of research, since it is related to Uyghur-Han relations and ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang. Scholars have proposes different accounts of Uyghur ethnic consciousness. Uyghurs are one of the 56 nationality groups in the People's Republic of China. Han Chinese are the ethnic majority. Uyghurs are a Turkic people and Sunni Muslims. The first account focuses on the relationship between status attainment and ethnic consciousness. It differs from Rudelson's claim that members of the Uyghur elite groups are the champions of Uyghur ethnic consciousness. The chapter shows the high level of ethnic consciousness among Uyghurs in Urumchi. It shows that the effect of Han migration on Uyghur consciousness is not statistically significant. Whilst the majority group dominates society, it may not be able to prevent a minority group from developing its ethnic identity and consciousness.