Recent years have produced striking advancements in the discovery of effective psychologically based treatments for some anxiety disorders. If this progress continues during the next decade, our understanding of these disorders may be increased to the point where truly effective treatments and/or preventive efforts would be available for all anxiety disorders. Nevertheless at this juncture there is sizable disagreement among leading clinical investigators on how to proceed with research in this area. Thus, a National Institute of Mental Health–sponsored conference of leading investigators was convened to recommend research strategies that will advance the field toward a truly cumulative body of knowledge. Recommendations were made in the areas of general research strategies, assessment and classification, process research, outcome research, delivery of treatment, and dissemination of results. A summary of these recommendations is presented.