At the turn of the millennium, few would have thought of Colombia as a case study for transitional justice experiences. The country was immersed in a protracted armed conflict marked by numerous atrocities, with millions of internally displaced people. Prospects for peace seemed distant, and for accountability, even more so. Nevertheless, Colombia began a transitional justice process in the mid-2000s, linking the demobilisation of illegal armed groups to the rights of victims – at the same time and through the same legal instrument, the Justice and Peace Law. The law’s initial implementation was monitored and partly led by the newly created Commission for Reparation and Reconciliation (Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación, CNRR). Other measures followed to address the law’s limitations and the demands from victims’ organisations.