If someone is described to you as ‘intelligent’, what might you expect to notice about them when you meet them? When teachers in various countries have been asked questions such as this about the pupils they work with, they have tended to list sets of abilities, such as:

• going beyond the given; • seeing connections between different ideas; • seeing patterns in data; • applying concepts to new contexts; • thinking logically; • applying knowledge from one context to another • demonstrating deep understanding of a concept (Adey et al., 2007).