City government structures have an influence on what happens in cities, as does the elected and non-elected leadership of those cities. Moreover, politics and political power always matter—prominent early political scientist Harold Lasswell (1962) defined politics as “who gets what, when and how.” In cities, as in other arenas, political power and economic, social, and other resources determine these processes of “who gets what, when and how.” This chapter will introduce readers to city structure and authority, city leadership and elections, the policy process within cities, and management tools that city managers can use to deliver effective services. This is an important chapter for understanding the information behind NASPAA standards, as this chapter covers the process of policy-making in cities (NASPAA standard “To participate in and contribute to the policy process”), tools that managers and leaders need to effectively manage cities (standard “To lead and manage in public governance”), and the ethics of local government management (standard “Demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of local government management”). In addition, some of the tools discussed in this chapter will allow students to think more critically about relationships with stakeholders in cities (standard “To analyze, synthesize, think critically, solve problems and make decisions”).