Public corruption may be divided into individual acts that violate laws, regulations or norms for personal gain and organizational situations in which ocials and others collectively adapt state institutions, procedures and rules for their own ends. This distinction has been employed for some time. Sherman (1980), for example, working on an earlier idea of “deviant organizations”, devised models of organizational corruption in agencies of social control. Thompson (1995: 27-28) further developed the notion into the concept of institutional corruption, subsequently dening it as a situation in which benets were received in exchange for a service that tended to undermine procedures that supported the primary purposes of the institution (Thompson 2013: 3).