This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses urban poverty and climate change, asking important questions about who is responsible and who has power, knowledge and resources to make a difference. It is now evident that climate change-related hazards and weather variability exacerbates existing vulnerabilities for urban poor. The book demonstrates how these vulnerabilities are manifest in different settlement types, and vary between first- and fourth-generation migrants. It presents critical importance of engaging with health vulnerabilities associated with vector-borne diseases in Tanzania. Higher levels of health vulnerability are particularly significant for low-income households as many are one illness away' from health shocks that can cause extreme impoverishment. Popular accounts of the impact of climate change in early 21st century commonly adopted what Mike Hulme calls the myth of Apocalypse' scenario global environmental collapse and extinction of Homo sapiens because of failure of humanity to mitigate greenhouse gases.