This chapter presents the peasantry as a class in Philippine society. Based on field studies and a redefinition of the concept, it argues that the configuration of the peasantry as a class covers not just the relationship to the means of production but also takes into account the political, social, and cultural aspects of intra-class and inter-class relationships in agrarian societies. The findings of a study of household-based peasant society in three villages suggest the resiliency of the peasantry as a class despite major changes in traditional rural communities.