This chapter explores a number of topical strategic challenges to the evolution of a coherent European Security Strategy (ESS), which have been agreed as strategic priorities by the EU. It discusses EU's comprehensive approach which is based on both civilian and military aspects of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and reflects key threat perceptions as identified in the ESS as well as the Report on the Implementation of the ESS. The ESS gave a basic guideline as to how the EU views security rather than some form of grand strategy as its title might suggest. The EU is facing a number of contemporary security challenges such as the slow and uncertain recovery from the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, tensions with Russia over the conflicts in Ukraine and Syria. The EU has clear security interests in both the Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood and the stabilisation of both regions is a challenge that the EU needs to meet.