ABSTRACT

The “frightful autumn of 1830,” which created in Nassau Senior a terror of working-class mass actions, was merely one of a series of strikes, riots, and rebellions through which laborers expressed their hatred of what the industrial revolution was doing to them and their families. Industrialization resulted in the total destruction of the laborers’ traditional way of life. Harsh discipline in the factories and deplorable living conditions in the cities were the fruits of finding and keeping a job. High unemployment made finding and keeping a job very uncertain. Moreover, with most of the important changes in productive technology came forced, technologically related job losses for large numbers of workers. The three evils that galvanized the most worker resistance, then, were low wages, bad working and living conditions, and economic insecurity.