This chapter focuses on systematic presentation of an ethical theory than any we find in earlier centuries. In ancient Chinese thought, rights and duties were always divided as two separate roads. The border between rights and duties is created from the relations between people, so it is from the relations between people that the principles of ethics are born. However, from the beginnings of human life, people all have thoughts of seeking their own interests, producing benefit and avoiding harm are not things that a single person can successfully do on his or her own. Freedom of thought and freedom of action these are individual rights. The doctrine of good-knowing began with Mencius and was brought to completion by Wang Yangming. Good-knowing's presence in the minds of people is not different in a wise man or a dull one; all under heaven, from ancient times to the present, are the same.