Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of lifelong developmental disorders characterized by poor communication and social interaction with others, repetitive stereotyped behavior, and cognitive impairments, including executive function. There is great variability in the degree of language impairment, symptom severity, and intellectual functioning of students with ASD. High-functioning autism is at one end of the ASD spectrum, with less severe signs and symptoms than other forms of autism. Although these children have average intelligence, school and daily activities can still be challenges of great magnitude. One reason for this is that these high-functioning children with autism may still show many of the key characteristics of the disorder. They often appear rigid and inflexible, show a strong liking for repetitive behavior and elaborate rituals, and have great difficulty understanding others’ perspectives. The cause of autism is uncertain, but increasing evidence suggests that disrupted cortical connectivity between key neural networks is involved in its pathogenesis. It is also suggested to underlie the executive dysfunctions and resultant behavioral symptoms of the disorder. Implications on cognitive remediation approach based on the understanding of the neural basis of autism are discussed.