Using Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey as case studies, this chapter examines how governments in West Asia address the regulation of private tutoring and the possible rationales behind each of the respective governments’ policies. By comparing policies across the four countries, this chapter shows regional trends and highlights the educational and policy implications of regulating / not regulating private tutoring in the respective states. This chapter also draws on scholarly literature, legal documents, codes of conduct and strategic educational plans.

The pattern of regulation in West Asian countries suggests that governments more actively regulate private tutoring where teachers have relatively higher salaries (i.e., Turkey) but turn a blind eye where teachers’ salaries are below the national average (i.e., Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia). In all four countries, private tutoring appears to be a politically sensitive phenomenon. In Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, leaving the private tutoring market unregulated may be favourable for all parties. Teachers can earn untaxed income, parents pay less and governments avoid further discontent. In Turkey, strong regulations govern commercial forms of tutoring. However, the policies lack flexibility and justification in the eyes of the public. The dissemination of information and viable mechanisms of monitoring compliance also require further attention.