The settling of the Port Phillip colony occurred 50 years after Sydney and in a new era of British humanitarianism. This context generated a set of unique planning responses – the first and only treaty between Aboriginal people and (unauthorised) settlers, the systematic removal of Aboriginal people from the township and the establishment of five pProtectorates – before a small number of planned reserves and urban slum areas provided the spaces for survival, relocation and activism within the city of Melbourne. The dynamics of Aboriginal presence but then removal, the exercise of colonial authority and ongoing Aboriginal resistance is central to this new planning history of Melbourne.