The Mafia Archipelago, comprising Mafia, Chole, Juani, Jibondo and numerous uninhabited coral atolls (see Caplan this volume, Figure 50.1), has a rich archaeological record pointing to the islands’ continuous occupation from the early first millennium ce. There are numerous historical traditions and many practices remain unchanged, providing great opportunity for ethno-archaeological research. Here I summarise archaeological survey and excavation conducted in the archipelago over the last 60 years.