In 2002 and 2003, both the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the part of the European Security Strategy (ESS) dealing with the EU’s neighbourhood aimed to promote ‘security, stability and prosperity in a ring of well-governed countries to the East and South of the European Union (EU)’ (European Council 2002: point 22; European Council 2003: 8). More than a decade later, the EU’s neighbourhood has become politically more unstable and insecure, and both the ENP and the ESS underwent major reviews in 2015. While the review of the ENP was published in November 2015 (European Commission and High Representative 2015b), the High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission, Federica Mogherini, presented the new EU Global Strategy on foreign and security policy – a (thematically) global strategy rather than just a security strategy – in June 2016 (European External Action Service 2016).