Work psychologists have had a longstanding interest in the criterion problem and have been particularly concerned with determining how to measure job performance and success at work. Many notable industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists have urged researchers to develop theories of employee performance (e.g., Campbell, 1990). Within the last two decades, we have made progress in the articulation and measurement of required tasks and behaviors at work (Campbell, 1990; Chapter 20, this volume) and the identification of contingent, discretionary behaviors that are important for person-team success (e.g., Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Chapter 21, this volume). However, the approach to the criterion problem followed by most researchers continues to be generally narrow and reinforces the status quo in terms of what is defined as success or successful work behaviors in organizations.