The previous chapters in this section focused on the measurement of task performance, constructive personal behavior (citizenship and adaptability), and counterproductive behavior and how these fit in the context of conducting selection research. Each of these represents a conceptually distinct content area within the performance domain, and all consist of reasonably well-defined constructs that have been reliably and validly measured in the past and successfully used as criteria in validation research, albeit some more so than others. Alternatively, this chapter focuses on measuring results—the actual end products, outcomes, or deliverables individuals or teams produce on a job. Unlike other criterion constructs, discussions of a “results” construct are relatively rare in the industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology literature. Likewise, results measures have not been as well defined and researched as other types of performance measures (e.g., task, citizenship, adaptive, etc.). Thus, we know less about their reliability, validity, accuracy, and fairness compared with other, more commonly used performance measures. We also know less about how to develop effective results measures that will possess adequate psychometric properties and validity.