Most early applications of the use of tests as decision-making tools in the selection of personnel in work organizations involved a validation model in which the scores on tests were correlated with some measure or rating of job performance, such as the studies of salespersons by Scott (1915) and streetcar motormen by Thorndike (1911). This view of validity was reinforced in books by Hull (1928) and Viteles (1932). Subsequent reviews by Ghiselli (1966, 1973) were similarly focused on what was by then known as criterion-related validity.