On November 15, 2014, 22-year-old Tuğçe Albayrak tried to help two girls who were being harassed by a young man in the restroom of a fast-food restaurant. The dispute escalated in the parking lot where the 18-year-old offender beat Tuğçe down, resulting in severe skull and brain injuries caused by her fall. Eleven days later, she fell into a coma. On November 28, her 23rd birthday, life-support was switched off. Hundreds of people joined silent protests and solemn vigils, and German and international media reports celebrated her as a heroine of moral courage. This example shows that the public protection of moral values, such as physical integrity, is a highly desired but also risky behavior. The kind of behavior shown by Tuğçe Albayrak in stopping a man from harassing the young

women has been termed moral courage. It is viewed as highly desirable for the functioning of human societies (Fehr & Gächter, 2002; Kennedy, 1955). However, scientific knowledge about its determinants is relatively scarce. To develop an in-depth understanding of this phenomenon, different forms of moral courage need to be considered, and their underlying processes need to be reviewed. This involves becoming aware of the situational and person factors that promote or inhibit a person from acting in a morally courageous way. Only then will we have the potential to design effective interventions to promote this kind of behavior. The present chapter provides an overview of the literature on moral courage. First, the

phenomenon of moral courage will be introduced and a definition provided. In particular, we will discuss the ways in which it is both similar to and different from heroism. Second, on the basis of theoretical models on helping (Latané & Darley, 1970) and whistleblowing (Gundlach, Douglas, & Martinko, 2003), we will discuss an integrative model of moral courage. Thereby, we will focus on the underlying processes and antecedents of this behavior as revealed in different fields of research. Third, the present chapter will address necessary next steps in research on moral courage as well as practical implications for its promotion.