The global boom in extractive development since the 1990s has been matched by a frenzied proliferation of international regulatory norms to govern the industry. This latter was spurred by the explosion in resistance to mining around the world from local communities affected by the industry's often destructive footprints, including its harmful impacts on human rights. These conflicts threatened companies' revenues, reputations and relations with shareholders. In response, transnational mining companies, international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and national governments have collaborated to design a twenty-first century global governance architecture that ostensibly renders mining operations more transparent and accountable, and that ensures their respect for human rights. For proponents of these new regulatory norms, ‘The root cause of the business and human rights predicament today lies in the governance gaps created by globalization’ (Ruggie 2008, 3). From this diagnosis, solutions in the form of good governance measures were designed.