Agriculture in China has been fundamental for socioeconomic development. In its 7000 years’ history, China’s traditional farming civilization was characterized by intensiveness, resource recycling at farm level, and harmony between nature and people. The kernel of the ideas and practices can be summarized in today’s language as conforming to and adapting to nature, and effective use of resources. Since the 1950s, the Chinese government has launched various agricultural initiatives to develop food production and eradicate hunger. In particular, after the reform strategy launched in 1978, land tenure innovation, improved investments, and technology dissemination and application have tremendously improved agricultural productivity in the country. China’s gross food production has risen from 113 million tons in 1949 to 607 million tons in 2014. This meant that per capita grain production has risen from 240 kg to 460 kg, a tremendous contribution to the food security of the country (Ministry of Agriculture, PRC, 1980-2013).