The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the issue of human trafficking and situate it in a human rights oriented context. A definition is offered and trafficking in its various forms is explained. Characteristics of victims are described, and the right to work is provided as a context in which to understand the relationships between poverty, migration, and trafficking in persons. The extent to which human trafficking occurs is discussed, as well as some of the limitations related to relevant data. The process of trafficking people is reviewed and the chapter closes with a brief introduction to some of the ways the issue is being addressed internationally and in the United States.