In the early 1970s, Pakistan's leaders launched a determined effort to acquire nuclear weapons. Their motivations included the experience of defeat in wars by neighbor and rival India, and fear that India might be close to getting nuclear weapons. Pakistan succeeded in the 1980s and carried out its first nuclear weapon test in 1998. For the outside world, there was great fear that in the next crisis or war with India, Pakistan would carry out its threat to escalate and initiate the use of nuclear weapons. Pakistan's military and political bodies have sought to address concerns about the security of their nuclear weapons and materials by assuring the world that they have put in place many protective measures to keep them safe. There is evidence, however, that the public confidence expressed by US leaders in the security of Pakistan's nuclear weapons and materials may have less foundation than would appear.