Food security has emerged as a major, global-scale challenge for citizens of cities in the twenty-first century. Developing alternative food economies is a key aspect of evolving sustainability citizenship, enhancing collective resilience, sharing practices and more sustainable localised urban economies. This chapter explores the emergence of alternative food economies in Sydney (Australia) and in three Venezuelan cities, including its capital, Caracas. In both Oceanic and Latin American settings, social food economies enable citizens to assert independence from commercial agricultural systems and to gain more control over food procurement while addressing food security and urban sustainability concerns. Such economies facilitate and enable the growth of those responsible, and collaborative, environmentally and socially ethical skills that characterise sustainability citizenship.