The question of national memory in the Czech Republic 2 is perceived not only as a research problem involving dozens of historians and researchers from the social sciences, but also very much as a political issue. A significant indication of this was the establishment of the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes, which originated in November 2005 when a group of senators in the Czech Senate tabled a proposal for the establishment of the Institute of National Memory. This proposal was discussed and extensively debated by the Senate and Chamber of Deputies from 2006 to 2007, culminating in July 2007 with the adoption of the Act on the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes. The mission of this institute is associated with investigating and recalling the consequences of the activities of ‘felonious organizations based on the Communist and Nazi ideology in the years 1938–1945 and 1948–1989’, which promoted the suppression of human rights and rejected the principles of a democratic state. It is emphasized that the education of citizens about these subjects contributes to the strengthening of democratic traditions, the development of civil society and helps to accomplish the ideals of justice.