In some industrial sectors (energy, chemical, materials), biomass resources in general, and wood in particular, are seen as a major element for the transition towards a greener economy. Concepts such as ‘bioenergy systems’ and ‘biorefineries’ have been the starting point for applied research in these areas. However, as biomass resources are limited, there is a need for a coherent approach to optimise the different biomass uses in a more value-oriented way, as stated in several national bioeconomy strategies. An advanced approach has been developed by the German government, which has defined bioeconomy as, ‘the knowledge-based production and use of renewable resources, in order to provide products, processes and services in all areas of the economy, within the framework of an economic system that is viable for the future’ (BMEL 2014). The current challenge is, therefore, how to implement such a strategy, as the transformation towards a bio-based economy can be managed from many different perspectives. In this regard, from a resources conversion perspective, the following tasks should be accomplished in order to ensure satisfactory implementation from the regional perspective: (1) sustainable resource provision, (2) strategic implementation of new facilities in bio-based industrial clusters, and (3) fostering of transsectoral cooperation.