An extensive literature has grown up in the last two decades concerning the theoretical and practical aspects of gender budgeting, manuals inclusive. Most practical cases are pilot projects at local small-scale level and are usually referred to as ‘gender budget initiatives’ (e.g. see Hadziahmetovic et al., 2013). The ‘initiative’ experiences provide a very valuable base for feminist criticism of public policy and resource allocation; are reected in policy agendas of inter-governmental entities like the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the International Monetary Fund (IMF); and have raised gender awareness in target communities and public administrations. However, the ‘initiative’ reference also implies an uncertain future and content.