ABSTRACT

The rapid urbanisation of the developing world presents numerous challenges to policy makers both locally and globally. Urban transport in both developed and developing cities poses environmental problems for their residents. Most obviously, the cities themselves face the pressing problem of efficiently delivering mobility to increasing numbers of inhabitants, which is critical for economic development. Concerns over access, safety, congestion and air pollution are uppermost on their agendas, yet at the global level, carbon emissions continue their upward trend. Almost a quarter of energy-related carbon emissions attributable to the transport sector, accounting for two-thirds and a half of oil consumption in OECD/non-OECD countries respectively (IEA 2009). Widespread urban expansion with its associated increase in consumption is a direct threat to efforts being made to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kahn-Ribeiro et al. 2007) and the road sector in particular is a source of fast-growing emissions, accounting for three-quarters of transport emissions in 2013 (IEA 2015). Innovative approaches are therefore needed to tackle effectively the myriad of urban transport issues which arise across levels of development. Greater awareness of environmental issues and their interconnected nature combined with an array of technological options presents a range of options in this endeavour. These are not only technology related, but also in the field of policy modernisation and institutional reform.