Like other research methods, qualitative methods require systematic research designs, data collection methods, sampling strategies, and analytical techniques. This chapter explains how qualitative methods are used in planning practice and research, examines qualitative research design from conceptualization to outputs, confronts challenges such as access and ethics, and discusses how such methods can be incorporated into the curriculum. It includes an overview of two types of systematic qualitative methods: formal research, which builds on prior studies, is reviewed by peers, and is made public, in order to contribute to knowledge in a field; and practical investigation, which is more narrowly focused on a specific question.