Introduction In this chapter I discuss the European-inspired notion of content and language integrated learning (CLIL). What makes CLIL different from English-medium instruction (EMI) on the one hand and English for academic purposes (EAP) on the other? A cursory examination of the acronym itself raises a number of questions. The Ls in CLIL-language and learning-are straightforward enough, but what about the I and the C? The I in CLIL stands for integrated: this signals CLIL’s dual emphasis on disciplinary learning outcomes along with language learning. Which brings us to the C in CLIL-content. More than anything else, it is this focus on the teaching of disciplinary content that makes CLIL unique. Can EAP professionals teach content? Can disciplinary experts teach language? Or does the CLIL approach necessarily imply collaboration between language and content teachers? These are some of the questions I address in this chapter.