Central to France’s self-image as a nation state is rayonnement – the projection of French power overseas. This notion, which predates the Revolution, is rooted in the idea that the country is the harbinger of a civilisation that has universal value and that it therefore has a right, indeed a duty, to share this greatness (grandeur) with the rest of the world. In the post-war period this was expressed notably by president Charles De Gaulle, who put this idea at the very centre of his foreign policy. Following the loss of empire, the policy had four pillars: the development of an independent nuclear deterrent, the defence of France’s permanent seat on the UN Security Council, positioning France alongside Germany at the heart of the European construction project and the maintenance of a sphere of influence in Africa. This chapter focuses on the fourth of these pillars. It shows how Africa became the privileged arena for the projection of French power overseas after 1960 and how it has retained this position in the post–Cold War period. It explores the economic, political, military, diplomatic and cultural dimensions of the French presence in Africa and analyses how and why these have evolved under the Fifth Republic. The chapter takes a chronological approach, beginning with de Gaulle’s approach to Africa, before examining those of his successors and examining the likely continuities between the policies of recent presidents and those of Emmanuel Macron towards Africa. The chapter argues that French policy towards Africa is still rooted in parts of the Gaullist model, even if there has been some change, and that to a certain extent, paternalistic ideas, such as the concept of la Françafrique, continue in some form today, despite repeated stated claims to the contrary by successive presidents of the Fifth Republic.