As the nineteenth century came to an end, writer, physician and ‘eugenic feminist’, Dr Arabella Kenealy, regaled the readers of the literary magazine Nineteenth Century with the transformative story of Clara. A year ago, Clara could not walk more than two miles without tiring: ‘now she can play tennis or hockey, or can bicycle all day without feeling it’. rough exercise and a vigorous lifestyle, Clara had toned and honed muscles, was slimmer, stronger and more agile. However, she had bartered many qualities for a ‘mess of muscle’ and lost her subtle charms in the process – sympathy, patience and elusive beauty. In their place Clara had developed a highly toned body, briskness, ‘mere muscular achievement’ and a ‘bicycle face’ (the face of muscular tension). She had a booming voice, neglected her domestic tasks and had abandoned ‘gliding’ in favour of ‘manly striding’.1 Clara had thus in Kenealy’s view traded her femininity for a strident masculinity as she achieved robust health.