This book is founded in the recognition that the past decade has been one of the most volatile periods for petroleum markets since WWII. Planners and urbanists need to understand the implications of this new era of volatility for car dependent, petroleum reliant cities. Oil prices grew rapidly from low levels in the early 2000s to near-record post-WWII highs, in real terms, in the late 2000s. The price of oil then fell with the onset of the global financial crisis (GFC) and, as of early 2016, was near levels similar to the early 2000s, in real terms.