Religion and international relations (IR) theory have had a unique and interesting relationship. It is arguable that modern IR has some of its roots in religious conflict in that the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which many consider the origin of the modern international system, was to a large extent motivated by the desire to end international wars fought over religion. Despite this, until around the new millennium, few IR scholars addressed religion. 1 Yet today it is becoming increasingly clear that religion is an important influence on IR theory. There is an emerging body of work that recognizes and investigates this influence. 2