New and strong chances of growth are at stake when we are led even to envisage a fourth industrial revolution or to think about the development outlooks of the emerging powers. A European perspective would suggest new opportunities for a parallel recovery of our economies at the local, national and supranational level with an approach based on human development. This is why the smart specialization strategy (S3) and the smart city strategy (SCS) adopted by EU at the beginning of the present decade are important efforts in this direction.